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Basic terms and names of clean water
- Dec 21, 2018 -

First, the working principle of water purification technology

Most of the world's water bodies are seriously polluted, which has aggravated the contradiction of water shortage. The traditional tap water treatment method can not guarantee the supply of high quality drinking water, and there are two pollution problems in the municipal water supply, such as the high-level water tank supply and the long tap water pipeline, which will cause potential rust, scale and Pollution problems such as microorganisms, therefore, various brands of water purifiers came into being.

According to the water quality treatment method, the water purifier can be divided into the following 

12 categories:

  1. Activated carbon adsorption: can be divided into the following three forms

a) Granular activated carbon: It is more commonly used, and the carbonaceous materials such as essence, coal, and husk (nuclear) are made by chemical method or physical activation method. It has a very large number of micropores and specific surface area, so it has a strong adsorption capacity and can effectively adsorb organic pollutants in water. In addition, during the activation process, some non-crystalline sites on the surface of the activated carbon form oxygen-containing functional groups, which make the activated carbon have chemisorption and catalytic oxidation and reduction properties, and can effectively remove some metal ions in the water.

b) Infiltration of activated carbon: The combination of activated carbon and silver not only has an adsorption effect on organic pollutants in water, but also has a bactericidal effect, and does not grow bacteria in the activated carbon, and solves the problem of nitrite sometimes occurring in the water of the water purifier. The problem of high content. When the water passes through the silver-infiltrated activated carbon, the silver ions are slowly released, which acts as a disinfectant. Since activated carbon has a good effect on removing color, odor, chlorine, iron, arsenic, mercury, cyanide, phenol, etc. in water, the sterilization effect is more than 90%, so it is applied to a small water purifier.

c) Fibrous activated carbon: A new type of adsorbent material formed by activation of organic carbon fiber, with developed microporous structure, large specific surface area, and numerous functional groups. Foreign countries have made remarkable achievements in the use of fiber-activated carbon for solvent recovery and gas purification; they have also done a lot of research work in water treatment applications.

2. KDF: It is a copper-zinc alloy. It forms a myriad of micro-batteries on the microscopic scale. KDF is very effective in removing residual chlorine, heavy metals, and inhibiting bacteria and algae. It effectively repairs contaminated water. It is currently a relatively environmentally friendly high-grade water treatment consumable.

3. Reverse osmosis membrane method: A method of membrane separation technology that uses pressure to pass water through a synthetic membrane that allows only pure water to pass through and contaminants are eliminated. The operation of the system depends on several factors, such as fluctuating water pressure, membrane life, and clogging of the membrane pores, which affect the quality of the effluent. In addition, bacterial growth above the membrane is also a problem. Reverse osmosis systems consume large amounts of water and typically produce one gallon of treated water from three gallons. This type of system is expensive and requires daily service, monitoring and membrane change.

4. Microfiltration and ultrafiltration: Microfiltration is a microporous membrane (PP, ceramic, ultrafiltration) made of cellulose or polymer material, which uses its uniform pore size to intercept particles, bacteria, colloids, etc. in water. So that it is removed without passing through the filter. This microporous membrane filtration technology, also known as granular filtration technology, is capable of filtering micron, ultra-micro or nano-scale particles and bacteria. Both ultrafiltration and microfiltration are membrane separation technologies. There is no obvious boundary between the two. The working pressure of ultrafiltration is generally about 0.3 MPa, which can remove macromolecular substances, bacteria, viruses, etc. in water, but the flux is low. .

5. Softening method: It is the use of ion exchange method to remove or reduce the hardness of water (mainly calcium and magnesium ions in water) to a certain extent. During the softening process, water only softens the water and does not improve the water quality.

6. Distillation: Refers to boiling water, then collecting the steam, allowing it to cool and condense into a liquid. Distilled water is extremely safe drinking water, but there are some issues to be further explored. Since distilled water does not contain minerals, this has become a reason for opponents to suggest that people's life expectancy is aging. In addition, the distillation method is costly and consumes energy, and cannot remove volatile substances in water.

7. Boiling method: refers to the drinking of tap water after boiling. This is an ancient method and is widely used in China. Boiling water kills bacteria, but it can't be removed for some chemicals and heavy metals, even if it is extremely low, so drinking is not safe.

8. Magnetization: It refers to the treatment of water by the effect of magnetic field, called magnetization of water. The process of magnetization is the process in which the magnetization process is completed after the water passes through the magnet in a direction perpendicular to the magnetic lines of force. China's magnetization treatment of water is still in the initial stage of practice and research. Foreign water purifiers do not have the requirement of magnetization function, because magnetized water does not belong to the scope of clean water, but belongs to medical problems.

9. Mineralization method: refers to the addition of mineral elements (such as calcium, zinc, strontium, etc.) beneficial to the human body on the basis of purification. The purpose is to play the health care role of mineral water. Commercially available water purifiers generally achieve mineralization by adding maifanite to the water purifier, but artificial mineralization is still a controversial issue.

10. Ozone, UV sterilization: These aspects can only be sterilized, remove heavy metals and chemicals that do not fall into the water, and the killed bacteria remains in the water and become pyrogens.

11. Water purifier (ionized water): The water purifier is a newly invented product in Japan. It purifies the water first and then electrolyzes it. The alkaline activated water corresponds to the PH value of the human body environment. The human body has a health-care effect and is suitable for drinking; the acidic activated water can be used for washing, bathing, and having a cosmetic effect. However, there are different views on the water-sinking principle of the water separator, the quality of the water and the impact on the human body after use, which need to be further explored.

12. Composite type: When a process is difficult to remove harmful substances in water, two or more processes are used as a composite type. Such as activated carbon adsorption, KDF, ultraviolet sterilization, activated carbon adsorption, reverse osmosis, activated carbon adsorption, microfiltration (ultrafiltration), polypropylene microfiber. In the composite water purifier, the membrane technology composite water purifier has excellent water purification performance, especially in the removal of microorganisms (bacteria, algae, etc.), and some of the excellent water purifiers can directly drink raw water. It has been welcomed by the vast number of consumers and has become a hot spot in the current development of water purifiers.